Click the images to see the various 4f orbitals
The lanthanide series is defined by the progressive filling of the 4f orbitals. These seven orbitals have the following ml values:
ml=0, ±1, ±2,
ml=0 are real, all the others are complex and so linear combinations must be taken to obtain
These are produced by simply taking linear
combinations of ml=±1, ±2, ±3
s-orbitals |2p-orbitals |3p-orbitals | 3d-orbitals | 4f-orbitals
Comparison of 1s, 2s and 2p-orbitals
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