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Lithium titanate is an anode material with a spinel type structure in which the lithium ions occupy tetrahedral sites (shown in yellow in the animation) and move by hopping via intermediate octahedral sites (shown in blue in the animation). This diffusion behaviour gives 3 dimensional diffusion pathways in the spinel structure. It is a zero-strain insertion material due to the fact that the octahedral sites which are also for lithium ion insertion are large enough to accommodate the lithium ions without expansion, so the lattice structure undergoes minimal structural changes upon lithium insertion and extraction. Thus, lithium titanate has a very high capacity maintenance due to the well retained structure. (99% capacity maintenance even after the 100th cycle)
M. Vijayakumar, S. Kerisit, K. M. Rosso, S. D. Burton, J. A. Sears, Z. Yang, G. L. Graff, J. Liu and J. Hu,
J. Power Sources, 2011, 196, 2211-2220.
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