Lithium manganese Oxide - LiMn2O4

The spinel structure of LiMn2O4 is shown, lithium ion diffusion is 3 dimensional, so it can also diffuse in 2 dimensional planes.


(Click and drag the animation
to view from different angles)

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The animations show the Li diffusion in 2 dimensions and 3 dimensions. Lihium ion moves between tetrahedral sites (shown in yellow) by hopping via intermediate octahedral sites (shown in blue). Due to this type of diffusion behaviour and the spinel structure, the lithium diffusion pathway is 3 dimensional.

N. Ishizawa and K. Tateishi, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn., 2009, 117, 6-14.