Hydrolysis of an Iminium Salt
NOTE: Important charges and non-bonding electrons are shown throughout the animation except during the transition phase
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Hydrolysis of the iminium salt is carried out using Na2CO3 and water. This is a particularly useful method as it removes any acid formed and also adds a formyl group. The Vilsmeier reaction is useful in the formylation of a wide range of electron-rich heterocycles.