Hantzsch pyridine synthesis

Step 1: Knoevenagel Condensation between the β-ketoester and aldehyde

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Click the structures and reaction arrows in sequence to view the 3D models and animations respectively

The first step of the reaction is the attack of the β-ketoester enolate on the aldehyde, followed by an E1cB elimination to give an unsaturated carbonyl compound.

Note: Step 1 and Step 2 can happen in either order

Onto Step 2

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H. G. O. Alvim, E. N. da Silva Júnior and B. A. D. Neto, RSC Adv., 2014, 4, 54282–54299.